Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Kaspersky Internet Security/ Antivirus [KIS/ KAV] 2010 Dark/ Black Skin

If anyone asks me what I hate most about KIS/KAV 2010 my vote will go for the appearance. I hope many will agree with me. To alleviate the grief I created a skin that will at least remove the greenish nature!

It’s a dark skin for Kaspersky Internet Security/Antivirus 2010. You might test it also on earlier versions (but later than Kaspersky 7) it might work. The screenshots with the instructions uses my skin. I find it nice for Windows Seven and Vista.

If you like it you can download it here.



How to select skin
  • Open Kaspersky Internet Security/Antivirus

  • Click Settings.
  • Click Appearance.

  • Click browse.
  • Go to the location where you downloaded and extracted the skin.
  • Select the skin folder and click ok.
  • Now click apply and then ok.

Sunday, November 22, 2009

Fedora Core 12 Constantine Download Links

For x86 32 bit systems (ordinary Intel PCs)
Live CD

Single DVD Image

Live CD (KDE)

For Network installation use this link,


For 64 bit Systems
Live CD

Single DVD Image

Live CD (KDE)

For Network installation use this link,


In case you are in trouble, use this mirrors to download Fedora Core 12

Friday, November 13, 2009

How to be a sudoer in Linux

Using root account is risky because it is a highly privileged account. You can accidentally delete a file, run a wrong script that will make great deal of trouble. So always try to use normal user accounts to avoid great mistakes and damages.

You can perform commands like root user using sudo from normal user accounts. For example,

# gedit /etc/grub/menu.lst 

You cannot modify that file as normal user. But this command will work.

# sudo gedit /etc/grub/menu.lst 

But you need to be a sudoer. Follow these steps to be a sudoer.
  • Login as super user (root) at this time & open a terminal. [if you don't know how press Alt + F2 and then type exactly `gnome-terminal`].

    Apply this command in the terminal.

    # gedit /etc/sudoers

  • Press down arrow key and come down until you see something like this

    ## Allow root to run any commands anywhere
      root    ALL=(ALL)       ALL 

  • Now add this line after them

    YourUserName    ALL=(ALL)       ALL

  • Save the file and close the window.
Now log out and login as normal user. Add sudo before every command that you want to run as root user. You'll find it pretty easy.

Note in Ubuntu, users are sudoers by default. You need not edit any file to be that. Just apply every command preceded by sudo.

How to install and run OS161 in Linux

OS161 is a small Operating System which runs on System161. System161 is machine simulator which gives the perception of a required architecture using your current machine architecture, virtually. So without knowing much about its real hardware we can simply code for the simplified hardware architecture for OS161.

The details of OS161's can be found in its home, harvard university site.

So let's see how it can be installed in Linux. Installation is very easy if you can apply some commands correctly.

There are packages here we need to go with
  • BinUtils
  • gcc
  • gdb
  • system161
  • os161

Installation Procedure

Download the entire package from here.

Now go to the directory where you downloaded the file. In our case it is Desktop.

# cd Desktop

Now extract the packages

# tar xzvf ASST0.tar.gz

tar command extract or create archives,
x means extract,
z means gz compressed format,
v means verbose or recursive,
f means file

The extracted packages are also in tar.gz (gz is a method of compression and
tar is tarball format) format. Extract all of them.

# tar xzvf cs161-binutils-1.4.tgz
# tar xzvf cs161-gcc-1.4-2.tgz
# tar xzvf cs161-gdb-1.4-2.tgz
# tar xzvf sys161-1.12-2.tgz
# tar xzvf os161-1.11.tar.gz

Installing softwares in Linux from sources (source-codes) require 3 steps
(if anytime you need to install softwares from tar.gz etc format then this
process applies too).
  • ./configure to identify system environment and softwares etc
  • make command builds the executable program from the source code (this
    takes long time mostly)
  • Now it's time to install the program. By applying make install command
    we do this (this step requires root previlidge for most softwares though
    os161 does not require it)
Now for every package we need to apply the same procedure. So the commands
will be like this:

# cd cs161-binutils-1.4
# ./toolbuild.sh

This script configures makes and installs at the same time.

Let the next packages know the path of the executable files.

# export PATH=$PATH:$HOME/cs161/bin
# echo "PATH=$PATH:$HOME/cs161/bin" >> .bashrc
# echo "export PATH" >> .bashrc

As we have add the path in .bashrc. You never need to add the path to environment variable again.

Now install gdb and sys161. Then configure and install mipseb.

# cd ../cs161-gcc-1.4-2
# ./toolbuild.sh
# cd ../cs161-gdb-1.4-2
# ./toolbuild.sh
# cd ../sys161-1.12-2
# ./configure mipseb
# make
# make install

Now install OS161 and configure Assignment 0

# cd ../os161-1.11
# ./configure
# make
# cd kern/conf
# ./config ASST0
# cd ../compile/ASST0
# make depend
# make
# make install
# cd ~/cs161/root
# cp sys161.conf.sample sys161.conf
# ./sys161 kernel-ASST0

Press q to exit the kernel.

If you have tried all the procedures described here and still cannot get to the final boot screen of os161. Then use this automated shellscript. Download the shell script from here. After downloading this script apply these commands to run.

# chmod a+x OS161_install_script_v1.3.3.sh
# ./OS161_install_script_v1.3.3.sh

Details instructions here.

You might need to debug your programs while running in os161. You can use gdb. But for the first time you need a guideline on how to use gdb. Go to this link to get a short tutorial on gdb.

Hints on some assignments here.

How to install wireshark on Linux (Fedora Core/Ubuntu)

This is pretty easy. Only one command does the entire work. Here are the steps.
  • Boot into yor Linux System. Log in as root.
  • Open a terminal/console. If you don't know how to open a terminal then you can press Alt+F2 and then type `gnome-terminal` there.
  • Now apply the following command in terminal.

# yum install wireshark-gnome

For ubuntu apply this

# sudo apt-get install wireshark

If it fails anyhow try this. It should work then.

# sudo aptitude update
# sudo aptitude install ethereal

rar Software for Linux

Rar is a compression technique. Rarlab provides software for extracting and creating compressed rar archives. The software for windows is called winrar which also has a GUI. Linux version only has the command line. Hence to use rar you need to learn the syntax.

To extract a rar file use this syntax:

# rar x fileName.rar

Syntax for creating a rar archive

# rar a archiveName.rar file1 file2

To split the created archive into several volumes use this syntax

# rar a -v9m archiveName.rar file1 file2

v means how much size for each volume you want to split into (in example it's 9 megabytes).

If you see that rar command isn't working in your system then you have to install rar. You can search http://rpmfind.net to find out a suitable rpm for your fedora release and install using rpm command.

Dual Boot Using Two Hard-disk Drives

When you have two hard-disks and you are using GRUB to boot OSs on them(Windows is on second hard-disk while Linux is on the first) Windows might refuse to boot by this configuration( in GRUB menu: /boot/grub/menu.lst) as it does not want to boot as from second hard-disk:

Title Windows 
rootnoverify (hd1,0) 
chainloader +1

If you face this consequence. Use this virtual swapping feature of GRUB instead.

Title Windows 
map (hd0) (hd1) 
map (hd1) (hd0) 
rootnoverify (hd0,0) 
chainloader +1

Grub does not load after making changes in partition table

You have installed Linux and your Operating Systems are loaded using GRUB. Now you made changes to your partition table. After restarting you see that your system just got messed up! Grub gives error in black screen and you just cannot enter into any OS! Whoa!! You might be thinking what you did!!

[I cannot ensure you that the error code in the image will match with yours.]

Well grub stores all information including its boot menu in a partition which is mounted normally in /boot. When you create a new partition, create a new logical drive or delete one the partition table changes which means the partition number for /boot changes. But GRUB still tries to boot from the previous partition which is not the desired one and it ends with a failure message.

Now that you know it’s a sily problem. So how do you let GRUB know the new partition number for /boot? You need to access the linux filesystem to do this. There are numerous ways you can do this though I’ll mention the easiest and interesting two.

Remember these methods only work if you haven’t deleted the boot partition. If you have changed the active primary partition either you must switch it back or install bootloader on the newly active partition too before proceeding this method. If you have deleted boot partition but you have Windows unaffected then you can use Windows CD/DVD to boot to a command prompt and fix the mbr.

Method 1: Using Ubuntu Live CD or Linux CD/DVD

For Ubuntu you have to add sudo before every command.
  • Boot from Fedora Core DVD/CD (any Linux CD/DVD will work)
  • Select rescue mode if there's no rescue mode then select text mode and type linux rescue then Enter
  • Skip media test
  • If asked to enable Network interface: select no
  • Click Next>Next..
  • If you are using Fedora Core DVD first give this command when the terminal appears.

    # chroot /mnt/sysimage

  • Then type these commands

    # fdisk -l

    Remember the partition number for for Linux partition.

    Now you need to change the boot partition number in GRUB Boot Menu.

How to edit GRUB Boot Menu

The boot menu for GRUB is stored in /boot/grub/menu.lst

If you are using Ubuntu Live CD or you have GUI then this command will work

# sudo gedit /boot/grub/menu.lst

But if only thing you have is the text mode terminal then apply this command to edit that file.

# vi /boot/grub/menu.lst

To insert texts press ‘i’ and then type texts you want to insert. To delete a character try using delete key first if it does not work then press ESC and then ‘x’.

To correct the partition number just change the line after "Title Fedora Core 8..."

There you wiil replace root (hd0, X) with the correct value of X that you remembered from the fdisk command. Reboot and eject the DVD/CD to boot from hard-disk. You should get your things back right then.

Boot without CDROM/DVD (for advanced users)

You can only try this if GRUB prompt comes just after starting your computer like this in image below.

Type in GRUB prompt like below:

GRUB> root (hd0, X) 

Here, hd0 means first hard disk,
X is any value
for example X=0 means C drive(1st primary partition c:),
X=1 (means 2nd primary partition)
X=4 (means D drive or partition after last primary partition)

After giving the commmand when you get this message "filesystem 0x83 or ext3" remember(or write down) the value of X which is needed when editing boot menu. Normal the Value of X is near to the value of previous one(before the change in partition table) like 1 or 2 less or added.

GRUB> cat /boot/grub/menu.lst

The boot menu configuration will be shown in output. It will help you to put correct command to boot the system.

Type the commands same as there after title "Fedora Core" except the
command root (hd0, X). You have to put the correct value of X as you got in prevous steps.

It will be like this:

GRUB> kernel /vmliuz- ro ........... 

Use tab for completion and accuracy.

Second command will be like this:

GRUB> initrd /initrd -****fcX.img 

* and X will be different for different versions

And finally type this command which will lead you.

GRUB> boot

The system will boot smoothly. After booting make changes to the file /boot/grub/menu.lst same way as described previously to keep the change permanent.

If you face a problem mention in comments.

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Cannot Boot Linux after Installing Windows! Bootloader (GRUAB) Recovery

You installed Linux. Then after that installing Windows XP/ Vista/ Seven (any Microsoft Operating System) you found that your Linux is simply gone. Your computer directly boots to Windows.

You got surprised as you don’t know how this happened. This is a common problem with installing Windows after Linux. It rewrites the Master Boot Record without any notification. As Linux grub was in Master Boot Record it is over-written and gone. Did Linux actually go? Nope. It’s not actually gone. You list the partitions using diskpart in Windows or in disk management console you will see the partitions for Linux still exist. Can we get Linux back life before?

Answer is yes if you haven’t deleted any Linux partition. We just need to recover the Linux bootloader. I shall tell how to recover grub bootloader here. You can recover your grub either using a Ubuntu live CD or other Linux media (CD/DVD). I’ll describe both. Recovering grub is safe because you will be able load (actually it is called chainload) windows too.

Method 1 (using Ubuntu Live CD)
  • Boot using Ubuntu CD selecting option “Try Ubuntu without making changes to your computer”.

  • Wait until it boots completely.
  • When it’s ready open run dialog box by pressing Alt + F2.

    Type exactly “gnome-terminal” there without quotes
  • A terminal where you can give commands will appear.

    Type “sudo fdisk –l” in the terminal.

    # sudo fdisk -l

    Click the image to enlarge.

    You’ll see an output with listing partitions in your disk. Find out the entry saying Linux partition. Notice the partition number. It will look like this sdax; where x is any one or two digit number. Remember this value of x.

    According to our example as shown in the above image it is sda5. So x = 5
  • Now type “sudo grub”. Wait sometime.

    # sudo grub

    A grub prompt will appear.

  • Now type “root (hd0, y)” where y is 1 less than x and hd0 means first harddisk. If the output says it’s ext2fs then it’s okay. Else try with other Linux partition number with the same command again. In our example it is 5-1 = 4. So the command in our case is root (hd0, 4)

    GRUB> root (hd0,4)
  • After you got ext2fs in your output type “setup (hd0)”

    GRUB> setup (hd0)

  • Now grub is written in your Master Boot Record again and you get back all the options. Type “quit” to exit grub prompt.

    GRUB> quit

  • Type “sudo reboot” in the terminal. Pick the live CD from CDROM drive when it is ejected and then press enter. And you get everything like before.

Method 2 (using Fedora Core DVD/any other Linux CD/DVD)
  • Boot your computer from the CD/DVD

  • If there is a boot option like rescue Linux then you must select it. Else select text mode. If you don’t find text mode see helps pressing F1, F2 etc options. In text-mode type exactly “linux rescue” without quotes.

  • Skip media test if your media is ok.
  • When comes a dialog box asking to enable network interface select no.
  • Wait until it boots. After it is booted successfully a text-based terminal is presented before you.
  • Type “chroot /mnt/sysimage” in the terminal
  • Now type “fdisk –l”.

    Click the image to enlarge.

    You’ll see an output with listing partitions in your disk. Find out the entry saying Linux partition. Notice the partition number. It will look like this sdax; where x is any one or two digit number. Remember this value of x.

    According to our example as shown in the above image it is sda5. So x = 5
  • Now type “grub”. Wait until it loads. It may take longer depending how old your BIOS is. A grub prompt will appear finally.

  • Now type “root (hd0, y)” where y is 1 less than x and hd0 means first harddisk. If the output says it’s ext2fs then it’s okay. Else try with other Linux partition number with the same command again. In our example it is 5-1 = 4. So the command in our case is root (hd0, 4)

    GRUB> root (hd0,4)

  • After you got ext2fs or 0x83 in your output type “setup (hd0)”

    GRUB> setup (hd0)

    Now grub is written in your Master Boot Record again and you get back all the options. Type “quit” to exit grub prompt.
  • Type “reboot” in the terminal. Eject the CD/DVD-ROM during reboot to boot from Harddisk.

If you face any kind of trouble just mention in comments I’ll tell you how to solve.

Tuesday, November 10, 2009

How to Remove Conflickr/ DownAdUp Worm

If you are running a Windows Operating System with a safe browser like Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox and you're thinking that you are very safe from worms/viruses then I'd ve to say you're in fool's paradise. If you are connected using a LAN to your ISP then there's high chance to be affected with worms whose creators really cared about vulnerabilities in Windows TCP/IP network.

If you cannot access antivirus websites and microsoft.com site but others then you are already affected with Conflickr Worm. Kido.h and kido.ir worms will be copied in your USB pen drive(though the worm allows safele remove hardware) and they'll be detected by antivirus on other PCs which are not affected. If you are not affected and you are using Windows urgently install these update not to be affected:

Conflickr worm is brilliantly dangerous because before I didn’t know a worm that’d exploit into PC using local area network implementing a weakness (TCP/IP Buffer Overflow) of Windows Operating System.

If you are affected with this worm install Malicious Software Removal Tool to remove conflickr worm. That’s the tool actually works as people tested.
Download Microsoft® Windows® Malicious Software Removal Tool (KB890830) from here:
From microsoft.com
Or from mediafire.com

More info on this tool here:

Also there is a tool from Symantec that you can try out in case:

After restarting ping to kaspersky.com Symantec.com etc. If they work you are one step behind from being safe. Now update your antivirus database definitions and run a full harddisk scan.

If you are interested about this worm you’ll get great deal of information about this here:
Microsoft Tips and Tricks along with info to prevent this worm
About The Malicious Software Remover Tool
Manual Removal Instructions and more info from Microsoft [Download this page from mediafire]

Thursday, November 5, 2009

Windows Seven Tips & Tricks: how to Reduce Taskbar Size

Annoyed with too big taskbar of Windows Seven? You just cannot resize it dragging with the mouse. There is an easy way to reduce its size.

Right click on an empty space of the taskbar. Click properties. On taskbar properties tick the check box "Use small icons" as shown in the image below:

Click ok. You'll see the size of taskbar has been automatically resized.

Tuesday, November 3, 2009

Migration to Windows Seven, KIS and DST

Migrating to Windows 7 is pretty easy. You can either replace previous Windows with Windows Seven or Multi-boot Windows Seven with previous Operating Systems. If your primary partition isn’t big enough [less than 12GB] then install new OS in other partition. Another solution is expanding the primary partition. You can try good partition manager software like symantec partition magic, acronis disk director suite etc. Be careful about keeping backup of your data and partition table. Anyway, I’ll describe it in detail in another day.

If you want to replace the previous Operating System then make backup of your important data from C: drive (if it is Windows). For example, if you were using Yahoo Messenger then you can copy your archive from the following directory: C:\Program Files\Yahoo!\Messenger\Profiles\Your User Name\Archive\
Put your correct yahoo username in the location. Same way you can copy your unfinished downloads of Internet Download Manager to resume them back.
Backup other files and folder if you have kept them in C: drive.

Install Windows Seven in the drive you decided to install. If you want to replace the previous Windows it will be C drive.

After installation check out if you are using a final release or beta version.
Open registry editor (in run dialog box type regedit).
Now navigate to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion
Check out the follow string values for final release:
CurrentBuildNumber : 7600 [Build number]
CurrentVersion : 6.1 [Windows Version]
BuildLabEx : 7600.16385.x86fre.win7_rtm.090713-1255

Click to enlarge the image.

Or type this in command prompt:

c:\> reg query "HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion" /v BuildLabEx

If it matches then you got the right hit!

Who knows! May be next software you are going to install may be an infection of parasitic viruses after installing which will instantly create millions of replicas and boom!!
Cool down. There is way. The first thing you should do is installing an antivirus software.

If you were using a previous release of Kaspersky Internet Security or other Antivirus softwre and found that it isn't working under Windows Seven don't be overwhelmed.

Get Kaspersky Internet Security 2010 [KIS is current up-to-date version] and install. This version has implemented Windows Seven security features and its performance isn't bad. One thing to remember if you are gamer. You need to run Windows Experience Index for rating before installing KIS. After installing KIS you won’t be able to run WEI successfully. I think kaspersky will soon release a patch or fix it in next release.

Download latest Kaspersky from here and install.
Note that, softwares like Kaspersky Internet Security are damn useless if they are not updated. So before proceeding to do anything next update the antivirus.

You can also update the antivirus manually if you have slower internet connection or no connection at all. Instructions here. Remember one command to download the updates and then update from the downloaded files.

If you are not in Bangladesh skip Step 4.

Fix your day computer timezone for light saving(DST) time coz your PC is showing one hour less than original. To fix it install patch from here.

Now select timezone Dhaka as shown in image.

Now install applications/softwares one after one scanning by KIS as you need. Have fun with secured system.

The Movie: Artificial Intelligence

View more info about this movie on imdb: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0212720/

The Wallpaper of the movie is nice that's what I say about his movie. Oh! Yes, you can download them here.

I watched this movie to get some flavours of latest artificial intelligence and enjoy related critics. But it wasn’t.

Anyway, this movie does not follow the same spirit of Steven Spielberg. It is different.
There are many things that the movie missed. Frankly I expected some more actions from the robot boy, David. May be for real reason he is just made like that. Moreover the focus on the boy from the start to the end of the film kinda made me bore. No actions, no surprises, cold flow of the facts and without any kind of representation of artificial intelligence rather emotions for some low-leveled robots exist in the movie!

Didn’t you ever think how foolish was that robot named David? He cut the mother’s hair for love.. What a loser! This is not AI. This is dumbness!

And the afterward things were totally fairy tale even that cannot be counted with a bit similarity with reality. The movie says the boy was unique. But he couldn’t be if he was such a success. The company would build thousands of replica of product when it is successful.

When David was showed in Johnson's place it was supposed that the authority would take the control of David over. But it was not! Again emotions! People’s love for the boy who look like real saved him. What a luck! The supertoy just saved his life.

I think from there the directors just lost the track. What should be done next!? There could be intelligent ideas. But they played with the fake boy’s emotion! He loves the mom and want’s mom’s love still not being human. Well if you want a robot to love you and make that way it will definitely love!! What’s the big deal!!

Phony concepts they are. To be honest there is nothing you can expect from this movie. What you get from it is an impure mixture of robotic emotion and those all about… Even cannot be said fairy tale! Better call it non-fair tale!

Nice special effects though.